At first, it is important to highlight that this mapping study focused on how to describe SPL variability within the use case description. IEEE Softw. can be rejected. Table 5 presents the results for the category Variability Description, which is related to how the SPL variabilities could be modeled in textual use cases. RQ2: How could SPL variability be modeled in textual use cases? Optional features are those features that may or may not be included in the products. Core assets development, also known as Domain Engineering, aims to define commonalities and variability and to develop the artifacts for reuse. Transformations are described in transfor-mation … (1990). (2014)), for example, were not taken into account in this study. Furthermore, the templates from Oliveira et al. Therefore, no quality criteria were defined for this mapping study. a new mandatory step) could result in changes in the variability description. 1990). •Textual or tabular descriptions •User stories •Diagrams . According to Northrop (2002), an SPL is “a set of software-intensive systems that shares a common managed feature set, satisfying a particular market segment‘s specific needs or mission and that is developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”. (2014), for example, evaluated the support of MSVCM (Bonifácio and Borba 2009), PLUSS (Eriksson et al. Bertolino and Gnesi (2003) propose a template called PLUC (Product Line Use Cases) that allow variations to be described, by explicitly enclosing within the sections of the use cases some tags that indicate the variable parts. Only three of the 20 undergraduate students had never studied textual use cases descriptions. Bertolino, A, Gnesi S (2003) Use case-based testing of product lines In: Proceedings of the 9th European Software Engineering Conference, 355–358.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. This new paper extends on that work by: Updating the systematic mapping in order to consider papers published in 2014; Including papers with an aspect-oriented approach for SPL use cases modelling; Presenting a controlled experiment, following the guide of Wohlin et al. Here is how the use case would look when using a formal use case format. Gallina and Guelfi (2007) propose a Use Case Elicitation Template (UCET) that provides special fields to collect information concerning variabilities: a) selection category, which specifies whether the use case is mandatory, optional or alternative; b) a description of variation points, and c) fault variation description, used to describe the faults strongly related to the variation points., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in This questionnaire was applied to characterize all the participants as to their previous knowledge in the treatments of the study. (2013) use the Alternative Scenarios structure in the use case template to describe the variabilities. We did this to avoid the compensatory equalization of treatments, compensatory rivalry, and resentful demoralization (Wohlin et al. a Due to this fact, we have conducted a controlled … Erikssona, M, Borstler J, Borg K (2004) Marrying features and use cases for product line requirements modeling of embedded systems In: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden, 73–82.. Institute of Technology, Unitryck, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. In the meantime, it is possible to find empirical work with the templates identified in this SM, such as the ones from Alferez et al. Kamsties, E, Pohl K, Reis S, Reuys A (2003) Testing variabilities in use case models In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Software Product-Family Engineering, 6–18.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. Addison Wesley, Redwood City, CA, USA. Alferez et al. : there is no statistically significant difference in terms of time required to understand the use cases’ behavior using the evaluated template structures. (2014) that this limitation is true for almost all controlled experiments conducted in the area of software engineering. Dari tiap tiap use case yang ada akan kita deskripsikan secara detail dengan Use Case Description. Instead, a proper use case diagram depicts a high-level overview of the relationship between use cases, actors, and systems. Galster, M, Weyns D, Tofan D, Michalik B, Avgeriou P (2014) Variability in software systems - a systematic literature review. This article also demonstrates a convention for organizing a use case’s steps based on the established approach of writing use case steps nonredundantly by using flows of different kinds. (2000), conducted to evaluate what kind of template better favors the comprehension of SPL variabilities specified in textual use case descriptions. The values present in this table are the asymptotical significance of the comparison between templates, using the Mann-Whitney test. Regarding the mapping results, six studies (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003; Bragança and Machado 2005; Choi et al. Where a Business Rule applies within the use case, create a reference to the exact step in the Alternative Flow where the rule applies. Carol Britton, Jill Doake, in A Student Guide to Object-Oriented Development, 2005. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. c This implies that the data set is not normal because the p-value was smaller than the significance level (alpha) 0.05. Once it was detected that there were differences in the time and accuracy associated with the templates’ use, an analysis was made of the data crossing template by template, trying to identify the differences. As we can see in this figure, steps 2 and 3 are optional ones. Therefore, the template used for textual use cases in the SPL paradigm should allow the specification of “small variations” (Gomaa 2004) (fine-grained variation), which can affect just one or two lines in the use case description. The protocol is a plan that describes the conduct of a proposed SM study (Kitchenham and Charters 2007). The use case model captures the requirements of a system. In our use case example, you will see that there are several components of a use case which we will review. Here are some of its characteristics: 1. Finally, Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm (2014) presented a controlled experiment where they examined the comprehensibility of domain models specified in a UML-based SPL Engineering method. In this post, I share a use case template in a fully-dressed format, as well as a use case example using the template. The system involves the user and the Uber driver and how the taxi request order and ride acceptance works. 2011). We can use the below sample outline to create our own use case specification documents : 1.USE CASE ID : States a unique ID for each use case. (2008) were excluded due to the second criterion. Figure 1 presents the use case “Withdraw Money” in the template found in the Bragança and Machado work (Bragança and Machado 2005). 2014). The meta-model also includes OCL constraints for ensuring consistency with the UML speci cation. Article  In [4], we described a pipeline architecture for analyzing use case text and demonstrated? Then, in both templates the specification of the variabilities is made with the name of the variability, type of requirement (optional or alternative), line number of the use case affected by the variability, and the variability description. With this structure the volunteers spent less time on the tasks and achieved a greater accuracy than by using other structures. Make sure you store use cases so that they are easily found, edited, and used. Google Scholar. Description: A brief textual description of what the use case does. Thus, we first pick one template per each keyword of the Variability Description category. The next step is to define the use case at a low level of detail. Requir Eng J 15: 215–233. Zhou et al. 2013). For this comparison, they used five criteria: SPL activity support, RE covered tasks, MDD strategy support, the degree of automatic support with a given tool, and the type of validation of the proposals.
2020 use case textual description template