In one slaughter plant in Brazil, 63% fewer animals were bruised following our training. Halal slaughter is was one of the more humane methods available to the meat industry and the only method acceptable for Muslim consumers. PRESENTATION You can change your ad preferences anytime. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. Meat processing plants (MPPs) produce large amounts of slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) because of the slaughtering process and cleaning of facilities. Line dressing —> Skin forelegs, hindlegs, neck and breast; hand-work (facing and fisting) and pulling (backing-down). Emergency killing of poultry are often methods that are simple and quick to use. The licence holder of the slaughter establishment should include written training protocols in the PCP to ensure that personnel who perform the task of stunning are able to check all animals to rule out the presence of consciousness. These trained employees should be able to monitor: signs of return to sensibility for the food animal species and type of stunning equipment or system used. licence holder has demonstrated that no other means of stunning is practical or works as well: for example, for horses, firearms may give a better stun than captive bolt stunning, depending on stun pen layout, horse temperament and nature, equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and recognize the signs of an effective stun, caliber and range are suitable for the species and class of animal, the ammunition selected for the species and body type to be slaughtered provides effective stunning while minimizing over-penetration or the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, ammunition is stored in a clean dry area and has not aged excessively, the firearm is cleaned and maintained and stored to ensure it functions effectively, a bullet proof barrier between the stunning area and the kill floor to protect people from the effects of misdirected bullets, slugs, or ricochet, remote viewing to allow monitoring of stun efficacy and bleed-rail insensibility with protection from the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, a visible warning system to indicate when firearms are being discharged, back-up stunning equipment, readily available. The definitely conscious will be clearly distinguishable from the definitely unconsciousness (including brain dead) by observation of well documented signs associated with these states. And ones that use little equipment are often quite popular, so that you don't have to be carrying lots of tools around with you. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. conventional methods of slaughtering used in the western countries, i.e. Both Halal and Kashrut methods of slaughtering animals are founded on the principles of non-suffering. signs of potential return to consciousness/sensibility which are evaluated in the context of the whole picture, as a collective assessment and must include enough signs as indicators to make this assessment correctly. For example for a single phase waterbath system: the height of the waterbath stunner water level and the level of brine in the waterbath stunner are adjusted throughout the day as needed to ensure even the smallest birds are submerged up to the base of their wings, or the birds' shoulders in the electrified water, For systems requiring increased salinity, salt can be added to the waterbath solution before the stunning starts and an effective salt concentration of the brine is maintained throughout the day to facilitate the flow of an effective electric current through the birds, Both AC or DC currents are used in single phase water bath systems with either sinusoidal or square waveforms, lower frequencies at higher amperages and voltages produce more effective and longer stunning times in the birds. The Humane Slaughter Act, or the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act (P.L. 2. Electroimmobilization may occur if the current bypasses the brain in the multiple bird electrical waterbath or plate systems. Waterbath and plate stunners are available as single phase or multiphase systems: either only one electrical phase of one waveform and current amplitude is used, or two phases of differing waveforms and/or current amplitudes are used consecutively: For example, for a two plate, two phase system: one phase delivers an AC (lower frequency alternate current phase, with sinusoidal waveform) current and the other delivers a DC pulsed current (higher frequency, direct pulsating current phase), each phase section (AC and DC) should be equipped with meters to measure the amount of current, as well as voltage, being supplied to that section of the stunner to assess the effective functioning of the equipment, the calculations of the amount of current being provided to stun each bird is not the sum of the amount delivered to each phase since each section is a separate stunning phase of the entire system and the amount delivered to each bird depends on the number of birds in each stunning phase at one time, each phase section (AC and DC) should be supplied with sufficient current to render the bird insensible, otherwise there is a risk of ineffective stunning or electroimmobilization, the ground bar should come in contact with all shackles over the AC and DC phase sections. Equipment that is designed for a single point contact with the head or neck (for example, an electric knife) may not produce an effective stun; there is the risk that it will only immobilize (paralyze) the bird without inducing unconsciousness. Electrical - used on sheep, calves and pigs. The Slaughterer The Animal Slaughtered Tools and Equipment of Slaughterer The Slaughtering Process When the current passes through heart as well, either simultaneously or sequentially, this can cause cardiac fibrillation with subsequent cardiac arrest and death. A stunning box is the most common method of restraining cattle (Fig. However there is a transition zone or a gray zone between consciousness and unconsciousness when the animal may slide into and out of consciousness that may require re-stunning the animal to avoid a return to consciousness. 2. For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply: The licence holder's PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: CFIA Regulatory requirements for humane treatment of food animals during slaughtering activities under the Safe Food for Canadians: Controlled atmospheric stunning (CAS) references: General references for stunning and slaughter of food animals: References for physiology of stunning and signs of consciousness/unconsciousness: Intervalle entre l'étourdissement et la saignée, Captive bolt stunning of poultry or rabbits, Electrical stunning methods for mammalian food animals, Animal welfare PCP for gas stunning for pigs, Decapitation of poultry as a deviation procedure for missed stuns in poultry, Monitoring for signs of consciousness (sensibility) and unconsciousness (insensibility) in food animals after stunning, Cutting and bleeding methods for conventional slaughter, Cutting/bleeding of red meat species including ratites, Humane stunning and slaughter of food animals and post-cut management, Additional PCP Content for food animal welfare, Humane treatment of food animals at the slaughter establishment, Guidelines for Stunning Techniques of Mammalian Food Animals, Guidelines for the humane care and handling of food animals at slaughter, Guidelines for animal welfare Preventive Control Plans and self-audits for the slaughter of food animals, Guidelines for stunning techniques for avian food animals, including ratites, Low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens, A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure, Official Journal of the European Union - PDF (1,421 kb), A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies, Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse, Welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals, Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences, Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: A Systematic Approach to Animal Welfare, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part I, Neurobiological mechanisms underlying stunning and killing, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part II, Evaluation methods, Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide, Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter - PDF (8,635 kb), How to Determine Insensibility (Unconsciousness) in Cattle, Sheep and Pigs, tension in the nose , upper lip and curled tongue, The animal should remain in a state of unconsciousness that extends beyond the time required to use a neck cut to bleed the animal that results in death, The stunning method should result in minimal signs of distress in the animal before the loss of consciousness, the outcome of mechanical stunning produces a pathological state of the brain incompatible with consciousness and sensibility until the animal can be bled out, mechanical stunning requires proper targeting to achieve this outcome, the best landmark for the targeted area is a midline frontal approach, the projectile, when used, should be targeted towards the animal's brainstem for most consistent stunning results. stunned as per other slaughter as certain stun methods (not captive-bolt) are accepted by a number of halal certification bodies for certain species.1 However, any stunning is considered ‘injuring’ the animal in Jewish Law and is not permitted. For example for a single phase plate (grid) stunner: For the electrical current to flow properly to the brain, the plate should make contact with the eye of the bird (side of the head), When using high enough voltages, they can be effective for head-only stunning, most electric plate stunners are designed to have a brine solution that just covers the electric plate (wet plate). 3. Temple Grandin – Updated June 2017 to include information on Zone of Transition between fully conscious and unconscious. The slaughter of livestock involves three distinct stages: preslaughter handling, stunning, and slaughtering. WELCOME TO MY 1.1 Shechita2 Shechita is the Jewish method of slaughtering animals and poultry for food. Let me teach you the 2 easy method of slaughtering chickens – by “cone” and by “bucket.” When keeping chickens, whether for eggs or fryers, you eventually will find yourself at a point to determine whether to slaughter it yourself, or to take it to a butcher to do. Presented by: The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: monitoring, verification and corrective action procedures to ensure birds are effectively stunned and do not return to sensibility before bleeding, in the case of irreversible CAS stunning, the outcome is that the birds are dead upon exit from the container; however this should be verified through validation or documented evidence that this outcome is consistently met. A preliminary series of experiments was performed to assess specifically the impact of each technique on animalwelfare aspects,while thesecond seriesfocused on the quality of the flesh obtained. A transverse incision of the neck is a common method of bleeding sheep. SWWs need significant treatment for a sustainable and safe discharge to the environment due to the … Mechanical, electrical or gas stunning; slaughter methods and monitoring signs of unconsciousness or consciousness. It is the shooting, by a gun or pistol in the forehead (mechanical method) by a blank cartridge or compressed air. The outcome of stunning prior to slaughter is to render the animal unconscious such that it is insensible to any pain and distress associated with the cutting and bleeding out slaughter activity. Depending on which areas of the brain are affected, this state of unconscious can be superficial and short lasting or deeper and longer lasting. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. Electrical methods include waterbath, head‐only and head‐to‐body; however, in practice for slaughtering birds, only the first two are reported in the scientific literature and will be described in this opinion. Flaying: Cut skin-along middle line from sticking wound to tail Skin brisket & flanks, working backwards toward the round – with long strokes & keeping knife up to prevent cuts Skin udders-without puncturing glandular tissue Raise the carcass: half-hoist position shoulders resting on cradle & rump at good height. How to Download slideshare ppts which are disabled by the author, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell), No public clipboards found for this slide, Methods of slaughtering, processing & postmortem changes and ageing of meat, Teacher at Calicut University, Thenhipalem, Malapuram, Calicut University, Thenhipalem, Malapuram, Student at Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupathi. Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … An electrical current is passed through the animal's brain via a large pair of tongs, causing temporary loss of consciousness. Mahabub Alam 2015 Jun 30; 4(3): 4576: EFSA Journal (2004), 45, 1 -29, (English only): European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) publications for monitoring of stunning during slaughter, 2013: Verhoeven, Merel, Marien Gerritzen, Antonio Velarde, Ludo Hellebrekers, Bas Kemp. The size of the box should be just wide enough to prevent the animal from turning around, and so be difficult to stun. Possible discomfort associated with this method must be controlled through the rate of decompression and O. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. Department of Animal Science and Nutrition Read it on the Wiley Online Library: Article | PDF. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. the right equipment is used for the right species at all times, the current (amperage and voltage) is adequate for the species slaughtered to avoid electroimmobilization, employees who conduct the stunning require adequate training for the specific equipment used, animals are well restrained and stay calm, for head-only stunning, the outcome is a reversible stun, the electrodes must always be placed to span the brain for the current to flow properly through the brain for all food animals. University, evaluate various slaughtering methods with respect to stress on the fish and the quality of the flesh. the protocol for level of salinity used and its adjustment including: manufacturers recommended procedures to enhance the salinity of water to improve electrical conductivity, as required, correct flow of the brine to avoid preshock from the brine flowing out the entrance to the bath, maintenance and cleaning protocol of shackles for electric contact to prevent poor electrical conductivity, the protocol for staff for stopping the line in the stunning and bleeding areas in the event of a problem or communicating problems so that corrective action procedures can be immediately taken, the system used should have meters or the proper software if computerized that display or record the amperage (ammeter) and/or volts (voltmeter), frequency and duration of the stun, meters (voltmeters and ammeters) are best installed where clearly visible to staff operating the electrical water bath or plate stunning systems and to any person who monitors, verifies, inspects or audits the system, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. This research paper discuss the difference between the halal (Islamic) and the recent (conventional) methods of animals slaughter and explain the effect of each method on the meat safety and hygiene. Note that even with low frequency, high current systems, the bird may recover to some degree if the current is not delivered properly to the individual bird. For slaughtering, before the neck cutting, chickens are immobilized manually or immobilized using shackles. As such, some people may find some of the descriptions and graphics upsetting. 25, 44). The threshold current necessary to induce immediate loss of consciousness for effective stunning is more than that required to produce seizures or loss of muscular reflexes as occurs with electroimmobilization: electroimmobilization without loss of consciousness can result in avoidable suffering to the animal. Sheep Removal of pelt 1. Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. Head-only stunning requires that electrified electrodes span the brain so that the circuit will pass through the brain, Head-body stunning for mammals requires that two electrified electrodes span the brain and a third one is on the chest, sternum or back, Head-body stunning for poultry is usually accomplished through a multiple bird electrical waterbath system; however this is very dependent on the electrical parameters used for the system. Swine 1. The basic slaughtering process. New Zealand u… The most common one is manual cervical dislocation, and this method dislocates the neck from the brain stem, and also stretches the carotid arteries. If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. Emus may be bled by cutting the major vessels near the cranial part of the neck similar to turkeys, staff members are able to observe, inspect, and access the animals for emergency re-stunning if required, during bleed out, if any animal returns to sensibility, the stun and slaughter of all other animals stop, and the situation is corrected immediately, no scalding or singeing , skinning or dressing procedure is performed on any animal until bleeding is complete and the animal is dead, bleeding occurs as soon as possible after stunning, especially if head-only electric stun is used, in general, best practice is under 15 seconds for head-only electric stunning; however since rabbits can return to sensibility rapidly, within 5 seconds is preferable, bleeding is to be performed by severing at least one jugular vein and carotid artery or by decapitation, when cutting the blood vessels using a transverse incision, it is recommended to severe both carotids and jugular veins for rapid bleed-out, decapitation is only acceptable after effective stunning, dressing procedures are not started until the rabbit is dead, both carotid arteries and jugular veins of birds should be severed since this is the fastest method of exsanguination and results in rapid blood loss and death, operational procedures that ensure birds do not pile up at the entry to the guide bars, monitoring the cut to ensure that it is properly placed (below the mandible), birds should be bled within 15 seconds of electric stunning, birds should bleed for at least 90 seconds, they are monitored on the bleed rail to ensure that they do not return to consciousness, they are dead before they enter the scald tank to avoid extreme suffering due to death from scalding if still possibly sensible, efficacy of the stunning and automated neck-cutting equipment should be checked by trained personnel each time the line starts up, at the start of each shift and at the beginning of a new lot of birds to ensure stunning and slaughter are effective and humane, efficacy of backup stunning equipment is checked at the same frequency to ensure the deviation procedure for failed stuns is working, there is zero tolerance for birds missing the automatic knife and being missed by the backup cutter after stunning methods that have any potential to be reversible, these animals have a strong possibility of entering the scald tank alive and fully conscious (uncut red birds), an uncut red bird represents a failure of the slaughter process, the cause of the failure should be immediately investigated by the licence holder, the licence holder should take immediate effective corrective actions to prevent similar failures, all incidents and related corrective actions should be documented, inadequately bled birds differ from uncut red birds, they have a neck cut, but for a variety of reasons, the bleed out is not effective, the probability, in general, is that these birds were dead before entering the scald tank, the presence of these mild to brick-red carcasses at the preselection station may be an indication of improper sticking, when carcasses have been neck-cut but have not bled out properly, the licence holder should evaluate the stunning and killing procedures, develop and implement a corrective action to prevent recurrence. procedures. Pre-stun shock occurs when any part of a bird receives an electric shock before it enters the waterbath or in other cases, before it is effectively stunned. Some reasons for this include higher resistance from an individual bird or the bird's incorrect positioning when presented to the source of electricity. This opinion on the killing of rabbits for human consumption (‘slaughtering’) responds to two mandates: one from the European Parliament (EP) and the other from the European Commission. the design, caliber, charge, bolt length, bolt tip, and bolt velocity are: appropriate for the type of animal, as per the manufacturer's directions and/or specifications, effective for the licence holder's intended use, there are a sufficient number of equipment so they can be rotated to prevent overheating, and can be available as a backup stunning method, equipment is used, cleaned, and maintained, and stored as per the manufacturer's recommendations, charge cartridges are stored in a clean dry area and have not aged excessively, bolt velocity is checked by a velocity checker, or similar means as stated in the manufacturer's directions, bolt(s) retract completely, as designed, after each use, the procedure including test equipment and frequency for testing the stunning equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes.
2020 types of slaughtering methods