For example, it can be applied not only to colourful simulative design targeting true-to-original simulation, but also to the realisation of the many variant designs of innovative jacquard fabric. Density of inorganic sodium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution. However, the microclimate humidity with WR-PCM has a higher rate than that with WR. Some softener is transferred from the fabric to the needle, the needle thus being lubricated, which reduces the friction thereby lowering equilibrium needle temperature. (a) Layers used; (b) final effects. The results of this study indicate that octadecane-containing microcapsules in water-repellent fabrics provide a cooling effect but sacrifice water resistance. pound/circular mil foot By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Variations within and between cones result in streaky or barre effects. The principles of clothing physiology, which is the interaction between the human body and its clothing system, with particular reference to the interplay between the body, climate and clothing, were discussed by Rupp.13 The factors that govern the physiological processes involved when clothing is being worn, including insulation, vapor transmission and convection and ventilation, were also described.13 Bardhan and Sule2 stated that protection, comfort and shape retention are the principal parameters in sportswear and leisurewear design. Given the basic design of colourful simulative fabric, the variant design can be made through a change in the layered-combination fabric structure. This property allows the skin to cool more quickly during exercise and plays a crucial role in maintaining wearer comfort.1 Gupta and Gupta7 demonstrated a huge variety of functional properties which have proven useful to both professional athletes and leisure sports participants, including superlightweight, high tenacity and stretchability, body heat retention, cooling capacity, sweat absorption, quick drying, vapor permeability and anti-bacterial action. Chung and Cho5 aimed to develop a thermally adaptable, vapor-permeable water-repellent fabric. In addition to the basic design illustrated in Fig. 6.21, interesting design variations based on the simulated effect produced by the basic design are introduced, which highlight the superiority of digital jacquard textile design under the layered-combination mode. Staple sewing threads also transport more cooling air to the needle, allowing the sewing speed to be increased by up to 10%, relative to that with comparable continuous filament thread, without adverse needle-temperature effects (Dorkin and Chamberlain, 1961; Laing and Webster, 1998). In case where the count is coarser than the gauge of the knitting machine, it leads to problems in working also. Needle heat generated during stitching depends on fabric-needle surface characteristics, fabric frictional characteristics, and fabric tightness (Laing and Webster, 1998). The UPF increases with fabric density and thickness for similar construction and is dependent on porosity (UPF = 100/porosity). pound/cubic yard This requires knowledge of the values of the specific volume of both the fabric and the fibers from which the fabric is made as indicated by the:2, where vf is fiber specific volume (e.g. Fabric density indicates the number of warp yarns and weft yarns in 1 inch2. In addition to the variation in design realised by changing the deployment of a layered compound structure in a fixed position, the fabric effect produced by the basic design method of true-colour simulative effect can also be altered by shifting individual layers of the compound structure. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3. The type of needle chosen is very much dependent on the type of fabric being sewn. However, despite all of this available research, the comfort dimensions in female tennis wear have not been reported. This is largely true for woven fabrics in which thicker fabrics are also heavier and denser than thinner fabrics (e.g. Ishtiaque9 stated that the comfort of athletic apparel depends on optimizing interactions between fiber type; spinning, weaving or knitting parameters; fabric density and weight; finishing; fit; and manufacture. By doing so, the fabric created can exhibit various combined fabric effects. - be aware that for many of the products listed below there is a difference between "bulk density" and actual "solid or material density". Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its mass per unit volume.The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. For example, woven fabrics with high cover factor and knitted fabric constructed of short stitches will be associated with elevated needle temperatures (Hurt and Tyler, 1971, 1972b; Laing and Webster, 1998). Similarly, Fig. 6.23 shows another creative fabric effect based on the same basic simulation design. It is important to note that for both types of needle point, needles should be changed regularly. nanogram/millilitre, g/cm3 to kilogram/cubic millimetre An interesting fabric effect created by such a method is shown in Fig. 6.24 and in Appendix 3, section A3.3. Wool fabrics were tested against polyester fabrics and acrylic fabrics for properties including coolness to touch, dampness perception, moisture buffering, enhanced body heat loss and rain buffering. WR-PCM is the water-repellent fabric containing octadecane, which is a type of phase change material (PCM), microcapsules. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Lightweight fabrics are suitable for underwear and summer items such as dresses and shirts. Analysis of the properties of the cloth beam regulator contributes to an understanding of the mechanisms for fabric take-up and for winding the woven fabric on the cloth roller. ton/gallon [short/U.S.] Does this change the density? g/cm3 to grain/cubic foot 6.23. 10.9). g/cm3 to megagram/cubic metre The weight of aluminum per cubic inch is 0.0975 pound, 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter. about 0.65 cm3 g−1 for cotton and 0.75 cm3 g−1 for polyester), vfab is the specific volume of fabric and ε is a correction factor accounting for yarn compactness and yarn packing fraction.2. WR is the water-repellent fabric without PCM. The term cover factor was introduced earlier in Chapter 10. Valid units must be of the density type. A decrease in needle temperature occurs with addition of lubricants or softeners – commonly long-chain fatty acid radicals that are hydrophilic. Other structural attributes that can have a direct impact on the performance of traditional fibrous products include2 cover factor, fabric specific volume and fiber fraction. Different combinations of values of these parameters can result in different values of fabric structural attributes as demonstrated in Table 12.1. Sharp-point needles (Fig. tonne/cubic centimetre milligram/cubic centimetre Mathematically, density is … 11.18.3 Fabric dependence. For some countries that use the metric system, the area is 1 cm2 and 2.54 is multiplied to convert it into the correct measurement of density. Any reduction in the ease with which fibre and/or yarns can be deflected from the path of the needle increases the force required for needle penetration. ounce/cubic yard The UPF increases with fabric density and thickness for similar construction and is dependent on porosity (UPF = 100/porosity). The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water. kilogram/cubic millimetre Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A high correlation exists between the UPF and the fabric porosity but is also influenced by the type of fibres. The fabric designer should take into account the fact that fabric density depends on the weft (its ‘thickness’ or linear density (tex)) when comparing the actual structure of the woven fabric that is produced with a presumed structure. Weight & Density of Aluminum 6061, 7075, 2024, 3003, 5052, etc. A lightweight t-shirt fabric will be about 5.3 oz, a standard weight 5.5 oz and a heavier t-shirt 6-7 oz. They found that comfort and garment fitness were two of the most important attributes in tight-fit garments. As each particular perception can be described in many words, depending on wearers, Wong et al. Technical specification of design variation of colourful simulative fabric. Finally, abrasion test results of fabric swatches suggested better values for plated single jersey and interlock piqué knitted fabrics in comparison to raised fleece knitted fabric structures. GSM is the metric measurement of the weight of a fabric, it is a critical parameter for any textile product. The invention also provides a process for producing the lofty nonwoven web. Variant design by reducing colour layers. These attributes are largely determined by three main parameters: yarn count, yarn twist and the technology involved. Density is the mass of a material per unit volume. Fabrics classed as ‘upholstery’ fabrics are heavyweight … (a) Layers used; (b) final effects. Simply select the input unit, enter the value and click "Convert" button. When fabrics are stitched together, the impact from the needle as it penetrates the fabric can cause buckling and distortion of the yarns and the fibres and even breakage. g/cm3 to megagram/cubic decimetre. Fabric density helps explain the thickness of textile products. As comfort is a two-fold performance characteristic (tactile and thermal) it requires more careful evaluation of the effects of fabric structural attributes. By using such a structure, the fabric effects of jacquard fabric can now achieve a much wider range of simulation and innovation than jacquard fabric could traditionally conceive and realise. In Fig. 6.25, panel (a) shows the original fabric effect designed by the basic method of true-colour simulative fabric; (b) shows the fabric effect designed by slightly shifting individual layers of the compound structure; and (c) shows the results achieved by considerably shifting individual layers of the compound structure. Industrial fabrics designed for awnings, canopies, tents and blinds may also benefit from a UV-protective treatment. How many g/cm3 in 1 kg/cm3? All tests were made on fabric swatches, the measurements were repeated for ten different locations of the fabric samples and the average of these values was taken. milligram/litre Thiry15 provides an overview of apparel comfort issues including the effect of the environment, available test methods, fabric hand, moisture management, thermal management and psychological comfort. Product description: Fabric Density Meter,also as a kind of textile testing equipment, to determine the thread density of woven fabrics and wire meshes as well as the loop density of knitted fabrics. Active 4 years, 11 months ago. Variant design by reversing colour layers. kilogram/cubic centimetre stated that the comfort of athletic apparel depends on optimizing interactions between fiber type; spinning, weaving or knitting parameters; Development of traditional textile fiber products, , the basic structural attributes of a certain fabric construction (weave or knit pattern) are fabric thickness, fabric weight and, Hurt and Tyler, 1971, 1972b; Laing and Webster, 1998, Hurt and Tyler, 1971; Laing and Webster, 1998, Dorkin and Chamberlain, 1961; Laing and Webster, 1998, A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning, 104.3 cm (width) × × 106.6 cm (length). A wide variety of fabric density meter options are available to you, such as electronic. The basic structural attributes discussed above can be measured using standard techniques. A rectangutarpiece of this fabric weighs 0-46 kg. ton/cubic inch [long] For example, twill fabric used for denim is made from a heavy and thick fabric resulting from a very coarse yarn count at a medium or high level of fabric count. ton/gallon [long/U.K.] Equilibrium needle temperature in a test run without sewing thread was lower than that obtained when subsequently stitching with a thread. The density of a plastic sample may change due to change in crystallinity, loss of plasticizers, absorption of solvent, etc. The strain on the yarns increases if the needle is damaged (Fig. It has six stitch-forming bars (4 ground, 2 selvedge, and 2 inlay guide bars). [4] (b) A ski bag has a label which states that the fabric used to make the bag weighs 920g per rn2. Fabric Thread Density Testing. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Finishes for protection against microbial, insect and UV radiation, Valeriy V. Choogin, ... Elena V. Chepelyuk, in, Digital design of novel simulative effects in jacquard textiles, Innovative Jacquard Textile Design Using Digital Technologies, Design variations of colourful simulative fabric were approached with a higher, Methods for characterisation of nonwoven structure, property, and performance, The measurement of porosity can be obtained by the ratio of the, Technological advances in sewing garments. 19 used statistical methods to identify the comfort dimension in tight-fit garments. milligram/cubic decimetre Density g/cm3 of bleached viscose. Furthermore, brand influenced the determination of preferred garments as subjects changed their mind after the garment brand was revealed. Result shows that cotton’s pre-eminence in the field was being challenged by synthetic fibre and high-performance fabrics. 10.7); needle point – first point of contact with the fabric; There are two main types of needle points; sharp points (Fig. From the design variations of colourful simulative fabric presented above, it is not difficult to realise the potential applications of the layered-combination design mode proposed in this book. kilogram/millilitre The digital image selected for design creation is the same as that of the basic design. The measurement of porosity can be obtained by the ratio of the fabric density and the fibre density (see Eq. 10.8) and ball points (Fig. The development and importance of high-performance sportswear and equipment in tennis, swimming and American football over recent years were studied by Susta.14 Lonsinger12 reviewed the trends in activewear including sportswear and sports-inspired clothing for casual wear in the US market. The above expression yields a fraction which, if multiplied by 100, will roughly yield the percentage of fiber content in the fabric structure. The fabric density can be used to calculate the effective fabric thickness assuming no voids. ton/gallon [short/U.K.] As shown in the density mirror, its reading range is 45-160 bars/inch. Additionally, based on the design results of the two creations shown in Fig. 6.22 and Fig. 6.23, it is possible to create a design by means of integrating the 32 fabric effects. Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury, in Principles of Textile Finishing, 2017. Discoverer: Tennant, Smithson. For Woven Fabric: Picks per inch : The number of weft thread per inch is called picks per inch. The present invention provides a lofty nonwoven web containing pneumatically drawn filaments, wherein the web has a density from about 0.01 g/cc to about 0.075 g/cc and the microfilaments have a weight-per-unit length between about 0.1 dtex and about 1.5 dtex. Table 6.4. These are essentially derivatives of the basic attributes and they are normally estimated, not measured. ounce/cubic inch [troy] In this direct method, both the bulk volume of a piece of porous fabric and the volume of the solid fibre materials are measured, and then the porosity can be calculated according to their definition. kilogram/cubic decimetre Figure 6.22 shows the real fabric effect based on the colourful simulative effect design. Bhat et al. The Woolmark Co., formerly the International Wool Secretariat, launched a range of technical sportswear for the 2004 Australian Open tennis championships. Karl Mayer have an eight-guide bar raschel for knitting medium-weight nets in E 6 to E 9, in a yarn count range of dtex 3000 to 6000, at a speed of 400 to 500 courses per minute. apparel bottoms, working overalls, military uniforms, curtains and furnishing products) are likely to be stronger and stiffer than lighter, thinner and open fabrics (e.g. tonne/cubic decimetre pound/cubic inch 10.8) can be used for: very densely woven materials, e.g. The weight may affect density, thickness and many physical properties of the fabric, such as strength. Fabrics made with fibers of different densities will have difference in fabric appearance, flexibility, air permeability and cover. The influence of both effects is greatest at the eye of the needle. As a result, a total of 16 colour effects were created within one motif. grain/cubic yard micro fabrics and silk; heavy woven materials, e.g. If the count is coarse, we need more yarn to knit the garments, and hence, it is a loss to the customer. It is a measurement that provides the base weight of the fabric, given as a value of grams per square metre. g/cm3 to ounce/cubic foot [troy] Anthony S.W. A deviation in average counts results in higher or lower weight of fabric. On the other hand, lightweight full dress satin apparel may be made from thin, lightweight and dense fabric using a fine yarn count. 22.65 g/cm3. Design variations of colourful simulative fabric were approached with a higher fabric density, and silk threads in both warp and weft directions. g/cm3 to milligram/cubic metre UPF values of 200, 40, 20 and 10 can be achieved with the percentage cover factors of 99.5, 97.5, 95 and 90, respectively (Pailthorpe and Chriskis, 1995). grain/cubic inch In this example, the design method changed to one with the four colour layers of CMYK being gradually reversed from one layer to four layers (a reversed effect). 3 by 27679.9 Y.E. Later on, Wong et al.18 applied neural networks to predict clothing comfort in tight-fit garments. 6.25. Ir. nanogram/litre The piece of fabric is 04m wide. pound/cubic foot ounce/cubic yard [troy]
2020 fabric density g/cm3